- General Regulations
- 11 Billiard, cushion, cloth
- 12 Balls, chalk
- 13 Marking of the spots and starting line
- 14 Billiard cue, rake
- 15 Lighting
- Common rules of all kinds of games of Carom Billiard
- 21 Beginning of the match
- 22 Cushion draw
- 23 Starting position, cue-ball
- 24 Cannon
- 25 Break during the match
- 26 Quit during the match
- 27 Balls in contact
- 28 Balls bounding out of the billiard
- 29 End of the match
- Special rules for each kind of game
- 51 Indication of the balls
- 52 Barred zones
- 53 Position of the balls (paper E)
- 54 Foul concerning the zone
- Final Clauses
- 1. The world rules of carom billiard complete the statutes and regulations of the UMB. They are applicable at all world championships and intercontinental tournaments officially recognized by the UMB.
- 2. The cases which are not provided by the rules of the UMB or the case of force majeure will be regulated by the the official delegate of the UMB or by his substitute after consultation with the official delegate of the organizing federation and the director of the tournament.
Articles 2 to 10 – nothing
- 1. The billiard is a table which surface is rectangular, completely smooth and horizontal.
- 2. The billiard table consists of slate with a minimum thickness of 45 mm or of any other material approved by the UMB committee.
- 3. The demarcation of the playing surface is effected by setting up rubber cushions of 37 mm in height at the frontmost point of the cushion. An allowance of plus or minus 1 mm is admitted.
- 4. The size of the free playing surface is 2.84 m in length and 1.42 m in width. An allowance of plus or minus 5 mm is admitted.
- 5. The rubber cushions are fastened to the entire length of an external frame of 12.5 cm in width which surface is entirely smooth and of a homogeneous colour. An allowance of plus or minus 1 cm is admitted.
Exclusively a quality concerning the cushions which is recognized and autho- rized by the UMB committee can be used.
- 6. The surface which reframes the cushions will have indelible marks fixed at regular distance corresponding with 1/8 of the length of the playing surface. Neither the mark of the producer nor any other indication will be allowed to be fastened to the surface of this frame reframing the cushions.
- 7. The cloth which covers the billiard must be new and must have a quality and colour which is admitted by the UMB committee.
The required details are published by the committee at the end of chapter I of the world organization rules. The cloth will have to cover at most the slate and the cushions. Exclusively a quality of cloth which is recognized and authorized by the UMB committee can be used.
- 8. The hight of the billiard measured from the ground to the surface which reframes the billiard must be between 75 and 80 cm.
- 9. The billiards meant for an official tournament will be equiped with an electrical heater eliminating any humidity of the slate and of the cloth. This heater with a thermostat will be switched on since the set up of the billiards and during the whole competition in order to ensure the best possible rolling.
- 1. The balls consisiting of three must be of a material and of colours admitted by the UMB committee. The required details are published by the committee at the end of chapter I of the world organization rules.
- 2. These balls are rigorously round and their diameter must be between 61 and 61.5 cm. A ball’s weight must be between 205 and 220 gramms or must have another weight agreed by the UMB committee. However, the difference between the heaviest and the lightest ball should not exceed two gramms.
- 3. The chalk should not excessively soil the surface of the game.
- 1. The places which must be occupied by the balls either at the beginning of the match or in its course as soon as they stopped in contact with each other or bound out of the billiard are named “spots”.
- 2. The positions of these spots will be marked by means of a cross drawn as fine as possible with chalk, in pencil or with ink. The marking by setting up small rings is forbidden.
- 3. There are five spots drawn according to the indications of paper A – Marking of the mouches – of the appendix.
- 1. The balls are set in motion by means of an equipment made of wood or any other material which is named “billiard cue”. The billiard cue may consist of one single piece or may be divided into several parts. The cue must be equiped with a ring at one of its ends called “leather tip”. The player is only allowed to use the “leather tip” in order to touch the ball. The player employs one or several cues of his choice and he freely determines its length, weight and diameter.
- 2. The player has the right to use a “rake”, a small stick with a stock at the end made of wood or any other material determined to replace the hand in certain positions of the body which are difficult to take.
- 1. The light projected onto the billiard may not be lower than 520 lux on the whole surface, the measuring instrument is put on the cloth to measure it.
The light must not be too strong, either; in order not to blind the players. (blinding starts at 5,000 lux concerning direct view)
The distance between the source of light and the playing surface must be at least 1 meter.
- 2. The hall should not be in complete nightfall, but it will have to be leghtened with at least 50 lux.
Articles 16 to 20 – nothing
The match starts as soon as the referee has placed the balls for the execution of the starting stroke.
- 1. The referee places the two white balls on the starting line, on both sides of the line of the three starting spots approximately 30 cm from each long cushion and the red ball on the top spot.
As far as the cushion draw is concerned the referee places the spot or yellow ball on the left side and the other white ball on the right side. If the two players insist on playing with the same ball the referee will draw lots.
- 2. The players draw the beginning at the top cushion. The two white balls must be in motion before one of them reaches the top cushion. If this is not the case the draw will be repeated. The player who causes two times such a repetition loses the choice to begin. It is not admitted to effect the cushion draw by a stand-in.
- 3. If the balls have touched each other on their way the faulty player (outside his half of the billiard) will lose the choice to begin.
- 4. If the white balls have touched each other on their way and if it is impossible to determine the faulty player or if the balls are at rest at the same distance from the bottom cushion the referee arranges that the cushion draw will be repeated.
- 5. If the ball of a player touches the red ball the faulty player will lose the choice to begin.
- 6. The player whose ball stops nearest to the bottom cushion has the choice to start the match.
- 1. The balls are set up by the arbiter:
- a) the red ball on the top spot
- b) the white ball of the partner on the bottom spot
- c) the second white ball – that of the player – any way the player wants on one of the two starting spots.
- 2. The player who starts the first inning of a match plays with the white ball if there are two white balls (whereby one is spot) or if there are balls of three colours.
- 3. The starting cannon must be played by direct attack on the red ball.
- 4. In the case of a match with sets there is an alteration of the players concerning the beginning of the matches regardless of the number of sets. The players keep the same ball for the entirety of the match.
- 1. The goal of the game consists of making as many cannons as possible within the limit of the distance of the match.
- 2. A cannon is made as soon as the cue-ball set into motion by the stroke of the cue comes into contact with the two other balls.
- 3. A cannon is valid if the three balls are at rest, if the player does not commit a fault and if he respects the conditions imposed by the affected kind of game.
- 4. Each cannon counts one point.
- 5. If the referee announces that a cannon is valid the player will not have to quit. If the cannon is not effected the referee indicates – if he thinks that it is necessary – “missed” and the player has to quit.
A break of 5 minutes is made at the middle of the match.
The middle of the match is at the moment where a player reaches or exceeds half of the distance determined for the kinds of game or disciplines of individual competitions at the end of his inning. This regulation is not valid for the biathlon. As far as the triathlon is concerned the break is made before playing the last discipline.
However, the break will only be made if the match lasts at least 45 minutes as far as a player reaches half of the distance and if at that moment he does not reach 3/4 of the distance.
On the occasion of the break the referee can possibly be changed. In the case of a match with set the break is made as follows:
- in a match best of 3 sets after the 2nd set;
- in a match best of 5 sets after the 2nd and/or after the 4th set.
- 1. A player who quits his place during the match without being authorized by the referee loses the match by this gesture. The case of force majeure occuring during the championship will have to be assessed by the official delegate of the UMB or by his substitute.
- 2. Each player who refuses to continue the match after the referee’s demand will be excluded from the championship.
- 1. As soon as the cue-ball comes into contact with one of the two or with the two other balls the rights of the player concerning all kinds of game, except the partie libre for which the renewed placingon the starting point is obligatory, are the following:
- a) either to demand that the referee places them once again on the spots;
- b) or to play with the ball which is not in contact or to play the cushion beforehand;
- c) or to play the detached massé but on condition of not setting into motion the ball being in contact. In this last case the player may cannon first the ball which was in contact. It is not a foul if the ball in contact solely moves on account of the fact that it loses the hold which it possibly got by means of the cue-ball.
- 2. As soon as the cue-ball comes into contact with a cushion the player does not have the right to play directly this cushion.
- 3. In the case of a renewed placing on the spots the balls will be placed by the referee in the following way:
- a) concerning the partie libre, the cadre disciplines and one cushion: all three at the initial starting position;
- b) concerning three cushions, only the balls being in contact are once again placed on the spots:
- the red ball on the top spot
- the white ball of the player who wants to play, on
the central spot of the starting line
- the white ball of the opponent on the spot in the
middle of the billiard
- if the corresponding spot is occupied or hidden the
ball will be placed on the spot corresponding to the ball which occupies or hides the spot. (paper F)
- 1. As soon as one or several balls bound out of the billiard the renewed placing on the spots will be effected by the referee as follows:
- a) all three balls at the initial starting position concerning the partie libre, the cadre disciplines and one cushion
- b) concerning three cushions only the ball or the balls bounding out of the billiard are once again placed on the spots according to the regulations of 27.3 b) and not at the initial starting position.
- 2. A ball is considered to be bounding out of the biliard as soon as it falls out of the frame or as soon as it touches the material of the frame.
- 1. A match consists of a certain number of cannons (distance of the game) which must be effected. This number varies according to the kind of game and is determined by the committee.
- 2. Each started match must be played up to the last point. A match is finished as soon as the referee announces “good” the last point even if one states after the stroke, that the player did not effect the number of required points.
- 3. The committee determines whether the matches are played with or without an even number of innings.
- 4. If the match is played with an even number of innings the opponent will have the right to level with the number of innings by placing on the spots the balls which are placed at the initial starting position as soon as the last point of the match will have been effected by the player who has one additional inning than his opponent. If the number of points, the limit of the match, is also reached by the second player it is a match which ended in a draw.
- 5. In the case of a match with sets the following regulations are also applicable:
- a) As soon as one of the players has reached the determined number of points the set is finished and he is the winner. If it is the player having executed the starting stroke who finishes his opponent will not play the inning.
- b) As soon as one of the players has reached the necessary number of sets he is the winner of the match and it is immediately interrupted.
Articles 30 to 40 – nothing
There is a foul and one has to quit:
- 1. If during the execution of the stroke one or several balls bound out of the billiard (indicated by “balls outside”);
- 2. If the player plays before the three balls are at rest (indicated by “balls in motion”);
- 3. If the player uses antoher part of the cue than the leather tip in order to play (indicated by “leather tip”);
- 4. If the player, except the attack of his ball in order to execute the stroke, touches any of the balls with part of the cue, with the hand or with any other object (indicated by “touched”);
In such a case the touched ball remains at the place which he occupies.
- 5. If the player touches or shifts a ball in order to remove a strange object which is attached to it instead of demanding that the arbiter does it (indicated by “touched”);
- 6. If the player shifts a ball by means of a direct or indirect contact without the shifting being the direct consequence of the execution of the stroke (indicated by “touched”);
- 7. If the player pushes through (indicated by “pushed through”). There is a pushing through:
- a) as soon as the leather tip comes several times into contact with the ball set in motion;
- b) as soon as the leather tip is still in contact with the cue-ball at the moment where it touches the second ball;
- c) as soon as the leather tip is still in contact with the cue-ball at the moment where it touches the cushion;
- 8. If the player plays directly with the cue-ball the cushion with which it would be in contact, without having detached it by means of a detached massé stroke in advance (indicated by “ball in contact);
- 9. If at the moment where the player touches his ball he does not touch the floor with at least one foot (indicated by “foot not on the floor”);
The use of special shoes is not admitted.
- 10. If the player draws visible marking points on the playing surface, on the cushion or on the frame (indicated by “marked”);
- 11. If during the inning or in the course of a serie the referee states that the player does not play with his ball (indicated by “wrong ball”);
- 12. If the player does not respect the particluar rules of the various kinds of game (indicated according to the rules);
- 13. If in spite of the demand of the referee the player does not play within the appoin- ted period of time (indicated by “not played”).
If the foul defined by 41.6 is wilfully committed the innocent player whose turn arrives may demand that the referee once again places the ball or the balls as exactly as possible at the positions which they occupied before the incident if he thinks that this position would be more favourable for him.
- 1. If a cannon is made after a foul having been committed which has not been stated the cannon is retained and the player must not quit.
- 2. Each fault committed by a third person, including the referee which causes compulsory shifting of the balls is not ascribed to the player. In this case the balls are once again placed by the referee as exactly as possible at the position which they occupied or would have occupied.
Articles 44 to 50 – nothing
A – General regulations
One distinguishes between the cue-ball on the one hand and the two other balls called object- balls on the other hand.
- 1. The number and the area of barred zones are determined by the congress. These zones are delimited by lines drawn as fine as possible with chalk, in pencil or with ink. (paper B)
- 2. Within each of these barred zones the player will only be allowed to execute the authorized number of cannons in the course of his serie which means that he must force the two opposing balls to leave the zone in which they are, by means of the determined stroke.
- 1. The position “come in” is reached: when the object-balls are at rest in the same zone while before the stroke of the cue they were in another zone or in two different zones or in this same zone but that one or both of the object-balls were leaving in order to integrate this zone once again (indicated by “come in”).
- 2. The position “in there” is reached:
- a) when a cannon is made after the position “come in” without one of the object-balls leaving the zone (indicated by “in there”);
- b) concerning cadre with one stroke on the same condition men- tioned in point a) above but indicated by “in there” instead of “come in”.
- 3. The position “astride” is reached: when the two object-balls are at rest near a line of the zone but each of them in a different zone (indicated by “astride”).
- 4. The object-ball exactly placed on the line of the zone is considered to be disadvantageous for the player.
- 5. One or the two object-balls are able to integrate once again and immediately the zone which they leave in such a way that they form once again the position “come in” or “in there”.
- 6. The position relating to cadre is represented before it gets into the anchor. If the two positions are the same the announcement will only be effected once followed by “everywhere”.
As soon as a carom is effected by leaving the position “in there” and as soon as no object- ball leaves the zone there will be a foul (indicated by “remaining in there”).
Articles 55 to 60 – nothing
Each infringement of the present rules will be treated according to the statutory regulations relating to disciplinary proceedings.
- 1. The presented regulation is established by the UMB committee on the basis of the statutory regulations taking effect. It is applicable since January 1st 1989 and since that day it annuls all previous and contrary regulations.
- 2. The affiliated federations, the recognized confederations, the associated members, as well as the contractuals partners of the UMB are committed to respect them and cause them to be respected.
Articles 93 to 100 – nothing
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